Create a role. Then define permissions for Pages (Under Control Panel). Set the View permission and save. Then log in with a user with the aforementioned role and go to the Control Panel. Log shows "com.liferay.portal.NoSuchResourceActionException: 156#ACCESS_IN_CONTROL_PANEL". It seems it is not possible to set the Pages tab to be shown in control panel for a custom role.
If you override the default resource actions and define the ACCESS_IN_COTROL_PANEL permissions for portlet 156 then the Pages tab is shown in control panel and no exception in logs. But it is still not listing any of the layouts of the portal.